The articles in this anthology deal with the development of the work environment, health hazards and work safety in Sweden from a historical, sociological and multidisciplinary point of departure. The over all aim is to introduce Swedish historical research on this topic to an international readership, to integrate this research in the international discourse and to stimulate new research within the field. The nine articles have been written within various disciplines and from different theoretical points of departure. A common denominator is the treatment of the work environment and work safety as a multifaceted and complex social issue. The focus is on how problems in the work environment have developed over time and how the state and the parties in the labour market on the central and local levels have dealt with this issue. The articles also reflect the development of gender relations in working life, labour legislation, handicapped workers’ situation in the labour market, the public discourse on work environmental problems and the meaning of the concept “work environment”.