Labour market policy in Sweden has been increasingly targeted towards groups seen as ‘vulnerable’ and at risk of long-term unemployment. In this book the challenges involved in including a particular group, newly arrived migrants, are examined through an analysis of the establishment reform – introduced in 2010 as part of the Alliance government’s efforts to increase labour market participation amongst excluded groups. The combination of policy perspectives within the reform (workfare, social investment and individualisation) are shown as leading to a number of contradictions, particularly in terms of combining long-term and shortterm labour market goals. These contradictions are also present within the organisations working with newly arrived migrants – the Public Employment Service and the private establishment guides – in their efforts to pair the needs of participants with the goals of the reform. This tension is further examined by drawing attention to a heterogeneity within the group of newly arrived migrants and developing a typology of five distinct types within this group. The different trajectories taken by each type through the establishment reform are used to illustrate the practical realities of applying more general policy approaches, such as workfare and social investment, to a heterogeneous group with diverse needs and capabilities.